SYLLOGISM Practice Questions with solutions

SYLLOGISM Practice Questions with solutions

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SYLLOGISM | Examples of Syllogism | SYLLOGISM Practice Questions with solutions

Table of Contents

RULES

  1. All A is B:
syllogism

Possible conclusions are:

  • All A is B.
  • Some A is B.
  • Some B is A.
  1. Some A is B.

Possible conclusions are:

  • Some A is B.
  • Some B is A.
  1. Some A is B and B is C.

Possible conclusions are:

  • Between A and B 
    • Some A is B. 
    • Some B is A.                            
  • Between B and C
    • Some B is C.
    • Some C is B.
  1. All A is B and All B is C.

Possible conclusions:

  • Between A and B 
    • All A is B. 
    • Some A is B.
    • Some B is A.                     
  • Between B and C
    • All B is C.
    • Some B is C.
    • Some C is A.
  • Between A and C.
    • All A is C.
    • Some A is C.
    • Some C is B.                      
  1. No A is B.

Possible conclusions:

  • No A is B
  • No B is A
  • Some A is not B
  • Some B is not A

Rules to solve the question:

  1. If the statement is positive then the conclusion must be positive.

  2. If the statement is negative then the conclusion must be negative.

  3. we can read ALL as SOME but not vice-versa.

  4. we can read NO as SOME NOT.

QUESTIONS

  1. Statement: Some dogs are cats.
    Conclusion:
    1. All dogs are cats.
    2. Some cats are dogs.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can understand that:
Some dogs are cats and some cats are dogs.
So, conclusion (2) is right.

  1. Statement: All clouds are rains. All rains are water.
    Conclusion:
    1. All clouds are water.
    2. No clous is water.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

All rain are water. Some rain are water and some water are rain.
All water are clouds. Some water are cloud and some clouds are rain.
All rain are clouds. Some rain are clouds and some clouds are rain.
So, both conclusions are wrong.
Neither (1) nor (2) follows.

  1. Statement: No files is an elephant. All elephants are caps.
    Conclusion:
    1. Some caps are elephant.
    2. Some files are caps.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

By diagram1 we can understand that:
All elephants are caps. Some elephants are caps and some caps are elephant.
No files are elephants. No elephants are files. Some files are not elephants and some elephants are not files.

By diagram2, we can understand that
All elephants are caps. Some elephants are caps and some caps are elephant.
No files are elephants. No elephants are files. Some files are not elephants and some elephants are not files.
No files are caps. No caps are files. Some files are not caps and some caps are not files.
So, conclusion (1) is right.
Only (1) conclusion follows.

  1. Statement: Some books are birds. Some birds are fingers.
    Conclusions:
    1. Some fingers are books.
    2. Some fingers are birds.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can understand that
Some books are birds and some birds are books.
Some birds are fingers and some fingers and birds.
So, conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statement: All nails are ears. Some ears are eyes
    Conclusions: 
    1. All ears are nails.  
    2. Some eyes are nails.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

By the diagram 1 we can understand that:
All nails are ears. Some nails are ears and some ears are nails.
Some ears are eyes and some eyes are ears.
By the diagram 2 we can understand that:
All nails are ears. Some nails are ears and some ears are nails.
Some ears are eyes and some eyes are ears.
Some nails are eyes and some eyes are nails
Conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statement: All dogs are brown. All pit bulls are brown.
    Conclusion
    1. Some pit bulls are dogs.
    2. All pit bulls are dogs.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows .
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All pit bulls are dogs. Some pit bulls are dogs and some dogs are pit bulls.
All dogs are brown. Some dogs are brown and some brown are dogs.
All pit bulls are brown. Some pit bulls are brown and some brown are pit bulls.
Both conclusions are right.
Both (1) and (2) follow.

  1. Statements: Some actors are singers. All the singers are dancers
    Conclusions:
    1. Some actors are dancers.
    2. No singer is actor.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

By the diagram we understand that:
All singers are dancers. Some singers are dancers and some dancers are singers.
Some actors are singers and some singers are actors.
Some dancers are singers and some singers are dancers.
So, conclusion 1 is right.
Only (1) conclusions follow.

  1. Statement: All clouds are rains. All rains are water.
    Conclusion:
    1. All clouds are water.
    2. No clous is water.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram:
All rain are water. Some rain are water and some water are rain.
All water are clouds. Some water are cloud and some clouds are rain.
All rain are clouds. Some rain are clouds and some clouds are rain.
So, both conclusions are wrong.
Neither (1) nor (2) follows.

  1. Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.
    Conclusions:
    1. All the flutes are instruments. 
    2. All the harmoniums are flutes. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can say that
All the harmoniums are instruments. Some harmoniums are instruments and some instruments are harmoniums.
All the instruments are flutes. Some instruments are flutes and some flutes are instruments.
All the harmoniums are flutes. Some harmoniums are flutes and some flutes are harmoniums.
So, only 2 conclusion is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: Some mangoes are yellow. Some tixo are mangoes.
    Conclusions: 
    1. Some mangoes are green.
    2. Tixo is a yellow. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, by the diagram 1 we can understand that
Some mangoes are yellow and some yellow is mangoes.
Some tixo are mangoes and some mangoes are tixo.
And from the diagram 2
Some mangoes are yellow and some yellow is mangoes.
Some tixo are mangoes and some mangoes are tixo.
Some tixo are yellow and some yellow is tixo.
So, from the conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: Some ants are parrots. All the parrots are apples.
    Conclusions: 
    1. All the apples are parrots. 
    2. Some ants are apples. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All the parrots are apple. Some parrots are apples and some apples are parrots.
Some ants are parrots and some parrots are ants.
Some apples are ants and some ants are apples.
So, from the conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: Some papers are pens. All the pencils are pens.
    Conclusions: 
    1. Some pens are pencils. 
    2. Some pens are papers. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram1 we can understand that
All pencils are pens. Some pencils are pens and some pens are pencils.
Some papers are pens and some pens are papers.
From the diagram2 we can understand that
All pencils are pens. Some pencils are pens and some pens are pencils.
Some papers are pens and some pens are papers.
Some pencils are papers and some papers are pencils.
Both conclusions are right.
Both (1) and (2) follow

  1. Statements: All the actors are girls. All the girls are beautiful.
    Conclusions: 
    1. All the actors are beautiful. 
    2. Some girls are actors. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows         
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All the actors are girls. Some actors are girls and some girls are actors.
All the girls are beautiful. Some girls are beautiful and some beautiful are girls.
All the actors are beautiful. Some actors are beautiful and some beautiful are actors.
Both conclusions are right.
Both (1) and (2) follow.

  1. Statements: All the windows are doors. No door is a wall.
    Conclusions: 
    1. Some windows are walls. 
    2. No wall is a door. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All the windows are doors. Some windows are doors and some doors are windows.
No door is a wall and no wall is a door. Some wall is not a door and some door is not wall. 
So, from the conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All cups are books. All books are shirts.
    Conclusions: 
    1. Some cups are not shirts. 
    2. Some shirts are cups. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All the books are shirts. Some books are shirts and some shirts are books.
All the shirts are cups. Some cups are shirts and some shirts are cups.
All the books are cups. Some books are cups and some cups are books.
So, from conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: Some cows are crows. Some crows are elephants.
    Conclusions: 
    1. Some cows are elephants. 
    2. All crows are elephants. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follows

So, by the diagram we can understand that
Some cows are crows and some crows are cows.
Some crows are elephants and some elephants are crows.
So, from conclusion none is right.
Neither (1) nor (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All the pencils are pens. All the pens are inks.
    Conclusions: 
    1. All the pencils are inks. 
    2. Some inks are pencils. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram, we can understand that
All the pencils are pens. Some pencils are pens and some pens are pencils.
All the pens are inks. Some pens are inks and some inks are pens.
All the pencils are inks. Some pencils are inks and some inks are pencils.
Both conclusions are right.
Both (1) and (2) follow

  1. Statements: Some dogs are bats. Some bats are cats.
    Conclusions: 
    1. Some dogs are cats. 
    2. Some cats are dogs. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow

So, by the diagram, we can understand that
Some dogs are bats and some bats are dogs.
Some bats are cats and some cats are bats.
So, from conclusion none is right.
Neither (1) nor (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All the trucks are flies. Some scooters are flies.
    Conclusions: 
    1. All the trucks are scooters. 
    2. Some scooters are trucks. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All trucks are files. Some trucks are files and some files are trucks.
Some scooters are files and some files are scooters.
Some scooters are trucks and some trucks are scooters.
So, from conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All buildings are chalks. No chalk is toffee.
    Conclusions: 
    1. No building is toffee 
    2. All chalks are buildings. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram1 we can understand that
All the buildings are chalks. Some chalk is buildings and some buildings are chalk.
No chalk is toffee and no toffee is chalk. Some toffee is not chalk and some chalk is not toffee.
So, from the diagram2 we can understand that
All the buildings are chalks. Some chalk is buildings and some buildings are chalk.
No chalk is toffee and no toffee is chalk. Some toffee is not chalk and some chalk is not toffee.
No building is toffee and no toffee is building. Some building is not toffee and some toffee is not building.
So, conclusion 1 is right.
Only (1) conclusions follow.

  1. Statements: All cars are cats. All fans are cats.
    Conclusions: 
    1. All cars are fans. 
    2. Some fans are cars. 
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow 

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All the cars are fans. Some cars are fans and some fans are cars.
All the fans are cats. Some fans are cats and some cats are fans.
All the cars are cats. Some cars are cats and some cars are cats.
Both conclusions are right.
Both (1) and (2) follow.

  1. Statement: All clocks are watches. Some clocks are alarm.
    Conclusion:
    1. Some alarms are watches.
    2. Some clocks are alarm.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows 
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow                                  

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All clocks are watches. Some clocks are watches and some watches are clocks.
Some clocks are alarms and some alarms are clocks.
Some watches are alarm and some alarms are watches.
Both conclusions are right.
Both (1) and (2) follow.

  1. Statements: Some pens are glass. All glasses are wall.
    Conclusions:
    1. Some walls are pens.
    2. Some walls are glass.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows 
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows 
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows 
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

By the diagram we can understand that:
All glasses are wall. Some glasses are wall and some walls are glasses.
Some pens are glasses and some glasses are pens.
Some walls are pens and some pens are walls.
Both conclusions are right.
Both conclusions (1) and (2) follow.

  1. Statements: No cities are countries. No countries are villages.
    Conclusions:
    1. Some countries are city.
    2. No villages are city.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, by the diagram we can understand that
No cities are countries and no countries are cities. Some cities are not countries and some countries are not cities.
No countries are villages and no villages are countries. Some countries are not villages and some villages are not countries.
No cities are villages and no villages are cities. Some cities are not villages and some village are not cities.
So, from the conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All cups are pencils. Some pencils are pens.
    Conclusions:
    1. Some pencils are cups.
    2. No pencil are cups.
    3. Some cups are pens.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (1) and (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Only (3) conclusion follows
      D. Only (2) and (3) conclusion follows.
      E. None of these.

So, from diagram 1 we can understand that
All cups are pencils. Some cups are pencils and some pencils are cups.
Some pencils are pens and some pens are pencils.
So, from diagram 2 we can understand that
All cups are pencils. Some cups are pencils and some pencils are cups.
Some pencils are pens and some pens are pencils.
Some cups are pens and some pens are cups.
So, from conclusion both are right.
Only conclusions (1) and (2) follow.

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  1. Statements: Some cats are rats. All bats are tables. All rats are bats.
    Conclusion:
    1. All bats are cats.
    2. Some cats are bats.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from the diagram we can understand that
All rats are bats. Some rats are bats and some bats are rats.
All bats are tables. Some bats are table and some tables are bats.
All rats are tables. Some rats are tables and some tables are rats.
Some cats are rats and some rats are cats.
Some cats are bats and some bats are cats.
Some cats are tables and some tables are cats.
So, conclusion (2) is right
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All fruits are leaves. Some fruits are grapes.
    Conclusions:
    1. Some leaves are grapes.
    2. All grapes are fruits.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from diagram we can understand that
All fruits are leaves. Some fruits are leaves and some leaves are fruits.
Some fruits are grapes and some grapes are fruits.
Some leaves are grapes and some grapes are leaves.
So, from the conclusion (1).
Only (1) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: Some ships are boats. All boats are submarines. Some submarines are watches.
    Conclusions:
    1. Some submarines are boats.
    2. Some submarines are ship.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from diagram, we can understand that
All fruits are leaves. Some fruits are leaves and some leaves are fruits.
Some fruits are grapes and some grapes are fruits.
Some leaves are grapes and some grapes are leaves.
So, from the conclusion (1).
Only (1) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: No rings are bangles. All gold are rings.
    Conclusions:
    1. No bangles are gold.
    2. Some rings are gold.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from diagram 1 we can understand that
All gold are rings. Some gold are rings and some rings are gold.
No rings are bangles and no bangles are ring. Some rings are not bangles and some bangles are not rings.
So, from diagram 2 we can understand that
All gold are rings. Some gold are rings and some rings are gold.
No rings are bangles and no bangles are ring. Some rings are not bangles and some bangles are not rings.
No gold are bangles and no bangles are gold. Some gold are not bangles and some bangles are not gold.
So, both conclusions are right.
Both conclusions (1) and (2) follow.

  1. Statements: All apples are bananas. No banana is a mango. Some mangoes are oranges.
    Conclusions:
    1. All oranges can never be bananas.
    2. Some mangoes are apples.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from diagram1 we can understand that
All apples are bananas. Some apples are bananas and some bananas are apples.
No bananas are mangoes and no mangoes are bananas. Some bananas are not mangoes and some mangoes are not bananas.
Some mangoes are oranges and some oranges are mangoes.
All orange can never apples and all apple and can never oranges. Some orange can never apples and some apple and can never oranges.
All orange can never bananas and all bananas and can never oranges. Some orange can never bananas and some bananas and can never oranges.
So, from diagram2 we can understand that
All apples are bananas. Some apples are bananas and some bananas are apples.
No bananas are mangoes and no mangoes are bananas. Some bananas are not mangoes and some mangoes are not bananas.
No apple are mangoes and no mangoes are apples. Some apples are not mangoes and some mangoes are not apples.
All orange can never apples and all apple and can never oranges. Some orange can never apples and some apple and can never oranges.
All orange can never bananas and all bananas and can never oranges. Some orange can never bananas and some bananas and can never oranges.
Some mangoes are oranges and some oranges are mangoes.
So, from the conclusion (1) is right.
Only (1) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: All goats are lions. No lion is tiger. Some tigers are horses.
    Conclusion:
    1. Some horses are goats.
    2. No horse is goat.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Either (1) or (2) follows.
      D. Neither (1) nor (2) follows.
      E. Both (1) and (2) follow.

So, from diagram we can understand that
All goats are lions. Some goats are lions and some lions are goats.
No lions are tigers and no tigers are lions. Some lions are not tigers and some tigers are not lions.
Some tigers are horses and some horses are tigers.
All horses can never goats and all goats and can never horses. Some horses can never goats and some goats and can never horses.
All horses can never lions and all lions and can never horses. Some horses can never lions and some lions can never horses.
So, from the conclusion (2) is right.
Only (2) conclusion follows.

  1. Statements: Some pens are keys. Some keys are locks. All locks are cards. No card is a paper.
    Conclusions:
    1. No lock is paper.
    2. Some cards are keys.
    3. Some keys are not paper.
      A. Only (1) conclusion follows.
      B. Only (2) conclusion follows.
      C. Both conclusions follow.
      D. All conclusions follow.
      E. None of the above.

So, from the diagram1 we can understand that
Some pens are keys and some keys are pens.
Some keys are locks and some locks are keys.
Some keys are cards and some cards are keys.
All locks are cards. Some locks are cards and some cards and locks.
No cards are papers and no papers are cards. Some cards are not papers and some papers are not cards.
All keys can never papers and all papers can never keys. Some keys can never papers and some papers can never keys.
So, from the diagram2 we can understand that
Some pens are keys and some keys are pens.
Some keys are locks and some locks are keys.
Some keys are cards and some cards are keys.
All locks are cards. Some locks are cards and some cards and locks.
No locks are papers and no papers are locks. Some locks are not papers and some papers are not locks.
No cards are papers and no papers are cards. Some cards are not papers and some papers are not cards.
All keys can never papers and all papers can never keys. Some keys can never papers and some papers can never keys.
So, all conclusions are right.
All conclusions follow.

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