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The Union of India

The Union of India

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The Union of India | Indian Federal Union

India is the 7th largest and 2nd populous country in the world. It is a South Asian country and is officially known as the Republic of India. It is a federal union of states and union territories. The country is divided into 28 States and 8 centrally administered Union Territories for administration purposes as it gets very difficult to manage a large country from one center. Hence, the Indian Constitution gives the right to the central government to give states the right to function accordingly. Each state of India has an administrative, judicial, and legislative capital for central control and folding authority. Every state is ruled by a head known as Chief Minister.

The Union of India
Indian Map

The Union of India

State Symbols

Every state/UT holds its own symbols for its representation. Many are listed below with their official symbols.

1. Andhra Pradesh (AP)

Chief Minister: YS Jagan Mohan Reddy

Governor: Biswabhushan Harichandan

Capital: Amaravati

Chief Languages: Telugu, Urdu, Banjara

Animal: Blackbuck (Antilope Cervicapra)

Bird: Rose-ringed Parakeet

Trees: Margosa (Azadirachta Indica) Neem

Flowers: Jasmine (Jasminium Officinale)

2. Arunachal Pradesh (AR)

Chief Minister: Pema Khandu

Governor: Br. B. D. Mishra

Capital: Itanagar

Chief Languages: Sino Tibetan languages

Animal: Gayal (Bos Frontalis)

Bird: Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)

Trees: Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)

Flowers: Lady’s Slipper (Cypripedioideae)

3. Asom (AS)

Chief Minister: Himanta Biswa Sarma

Governor: Jagdish Mukhi

Capital: Dispur

Chief Languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Karbi

Animal: One-horned Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis)

Bird: White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata)

Trees: Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)

Flowers: Foxtail Orchids (Rhynchostylis gigantea)

4. Bihar (BR)

Chief Minister: Nitish Kumar

Governor: Phagu Chauhan

Capital: Patna

Chief Languages: Hindi, Urdu, Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili

Animal: Gaur (Bos gaurus)

Bird: House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus)

Trees: Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa)

Flowers: White Orchid tree (Bauhinia acuminata)

5. Chhattisgarh

Chief Minister: Bhupesh Baghel

Governor: Anusuiya Uikey

Capital: Raipr

Chief Languages: Chhattisgarhi, Hindi

Animal: Wild Buffalo (B. bubalis arnee)

Bird: Bastar Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa)

Trees: Sal (Shorea robusta)

6. Goa (GA)

Chief Minister: Arvind Kejriwal

Governor: PS Sreedharan Pillai

Capital: Panaji

Chief Languages: Konkani, Marathi

Animal: Gaur (Bos gaurus)

Bird: Black-crested Bulbul (Pycnonotus gularis)

Trees: Asna (Terminalia elliptica)

7. Gujarat (GJ)

Chief Minister: Bhupendra Patel

Governor: Acharya Devvrat

Capital: Gandhinagar

Chief Languages: Gujarati

Animal: Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica)

Bird: Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus)

Trees: Mango (Mangifera Indica)

Flowers: Marigold (Tagetes erecta)

8. Haryana (HR)

Chief Minister: Manohar Lal

Governor: Bandaru Dattatreya

Capital: Chandigarh

Chief Languages: Hindi, Punjabi

Animal: Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)

Bird: Black Francolin (Francolinus francolinus)

Trees: Peepal (Ficus religiosa)

Flowers: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

9. Himachal Pradesh (HP)

Chief Minister: Jairam Thakur

Governor: Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar

Capital: Shimla

Known as the Fruit Bowl of India

Chief Languages: Pahari, Hindi, Punjabi, Kinnauri

Animal: Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia)

Bird: Jujurana/Western Tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus)

Trees: Deodar (Cedrus deodara)

Flowers: Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum)

10. Jharkhand (JH)

Chief Minister: Hemant Soren

Governor: Ramesh Bais

Capital: Ranchi

Chief Languages: Hindi, Urdu, Kurmati, Santhali, Kurukh, Mundari, Khariya, Malto, Nagpuria, Bengali

Animal: Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)

Bird: Asian Koel (Eudynamys scolopacea)

Trees: Sal(Shorea robusta)

Flowers: Parrot Tree (Butea monosperma)

11. Karnataka (KA)

Chief Minister: Basavaraj Bommai

Governor: Thawar Chand Gehlot

Capital: Bengaluru

Chief Languages: Kannada

Animal: Indian Elephant (Elephas Maximus indicus)

Bird: Indian Roller (Coracias benghalensis)

Trees: Sandalwood (Santalum album)

Flowers: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

12. Kerala (KL)

Chief Minister: Pinarayi Vijayan

Governor: Arif Mohammed Khan

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram

Chief Languages: Malayalam

Animal: Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)

Bird: Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)

Trees: Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

Flowers: Golden Shower (Cassia fistula

13. Madhya Pradesh (MP)

Chief Minister: Shivraj Singh Chouhan

Governor: Mangubhai Chaganbhai Patel

Capital: Bhopal

Chief Languages: Hindi

Animal: Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelli)

Bird: Asian Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi)

Trees: Banyan (Ficus benghalensis)

Flowers: Parrot Tree (Butea monosperma)

14. Maharashtra (MH)

Chief Minister: Uddhav Thackeray

Governor: Bhagat Singh Koshyari

Capital: Mumbai

Chief Languages: Marathi

Animal: Indian Giant Squirrel (Ratufa indica)

Bird: Yellow-footed Green Pigeon (reron phoenicoptera)

Trees: Mango (Mangifera Indica)

Flowers: Jarul (Lagerstroemia speciosa)

15. Manipur (MN)

Chief Minister: N. Biren Singh

Governor: Shri. La. Ganesan

Capital: Imphal

Chief Languages: Manipuri

Animal: Sangai (Cervus eldi eldi)

Bird: Mrs. Hume’s {heasant (Syrmaticus humiae)

Trees: Indian Mahogany (Toona ciliata)

Flowers: Siroi Lily (Lilium mackliniae)

16. Meghalaya (ML)

Chief Minister: Conrad Kongkai Sangma

Governor: Satya Pal Malik

Capital: Shillong

Chief Languages: Garo, Khasi, English

Animal: Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

Bird: Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa)

Trees: White teak (Gmelina arborea)

Flowers: Lady’s Slipper (Cypripedioideae)

17. Mizoram (MZ)

Chief Minister: Pu Zoramthanga

Governor: Dr. Kambhampati Haribabu

Capital: Aizawl

Chief Languages: Mizo, Kuki and English

Animal: Himalayan Serow (Saza)

Bird: Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae)

Trees: Iron Wood (Mesua ferrea)

Flowers: Red Vanda

18. Nagaland (NL)

Chief Minister: Neiphiu Rio

Governor: R. N. Ravi

Capital: Kohima

Chief Languages: Angami, Konyak, Sema, Chakhesang

Animal: Gaur (Bos gaurus)

Bird: Blyth’s Tragopan (Tragopan blythii)

Trees: Alder

Flowers: Rhododendron

19. Odisha (OR)

Chief Minister: Naveen Patnaik

Governor: Prof. Ganeshi Lal Mathur

Capital: Bhubaneswar

Chief Languages: Odiya (Oriya)

Animal: Sambar (Rusa unicolor)

Bird: Indian Roller (Coracias benghalensis)

Trees: Ashwatha (Ficus religiosa)

Flowers: Ashoka (Saraca asoca)

20. Punjab (PB)

Chief Minister: Bhagwant Singh Mann

Governor: Shri Banwarilal Purohit

Capital: Chandigarh

Chief Languages: Punjabi

Animal: Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)

Bird: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)

Trees: Indian Rosewood

Flowers: Shisham

21. Rajasthan (RJ)

Chief Minister: Ashok Gehlot

Governor: Kalraj Mishra

Capital: Jaipur

Chief Languages: Rajasthani, Hindi, Gujarati

Animal: Camel, Chinkara (Gazella bennetti)

Bird: Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps)

Trees: Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)

Flowers: Rohira (Tecomella undulata)

22. Sikkim (SK)

Chief Minister: PS Golay

Governor: Ganga Prasad

Capital: Gangtok

Chief Languages: Nepali, Lepcha, Bhutia and Limbu

Animal: Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

Bird: Blood Pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus)

Trees: Rhododendron (Rhododendron Niveum)

Flowers: Noble Orchid (Cymbidium goeringii)

23. Tamil nadu (TN)

Chief Minister: M. K. Stalin

Governor: Banwarilal Purohit

Capital: Chennai

Chief Languages: Tamil

Animal: Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius)

Bird: Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica)

Trees: Palmyra Palm (Borassus)

Flowers: Glory Lily (Gloriosa superba)

24. Telangana (TG)

Chief Minister: K Chandrasekhar Rao

Governor: Dr Tamilisai Soundararajan

Capital: Hyderabad

Chief Languages: Telugu

Animal: Jinka (Spotted Deer)

Bird: Indian Roller (Pala Pitta or Blue Jay)

Trees: Jammi Chettu (Prosopis Cineraria)

Flowers: Tangedu Puvvu (Tanner’s Cassia)

25. Tripura (TR)

Chief Minister: Biplab Kumar Deb

Governor: Satyadev narayan Arya

Capital: Agartala

Chief Languages: Bengali, Kokborak and Manipuri

Animal: Phayre’s Langur (Trachypithecus phayrei)

Bird: Green Imperial Pigeon

Trees: Agar (Gelidium amansii)

Flowers: Nag Kesar (Mesua ferrea)

26. Uttarakhand (UT)

Governor: Baby Rani Maurya

Capital: Dehradun

Chief Languages: Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni

Animal: Musk Deer (Moschidae)

Bird: Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus)

Trees: Burans (Rhododendron arboreum)

Flowers: Brahma Kamal (Saussurea obvallata)

27. Uttar Pradesh (UP)

Chief Minister: Yogi Aditya Nath

Governor: Anandiben Patel

Capital: Lucknow

Chief Languages: Hindi and Urdu

Animal: Swamp Deer (Rucervus duvaucelli)

Bird: Sarus Crane (Grus antigone)

Trees: Ashoka Tree (Saraca asoca)

Flowers: Palash (Butea monosperma)

28. West Bengal (WB)

Chief Minister: Mamta Banerjee

Governor: Jagdeep Dhankar

Capital: Kolkata

Chief Languages: Bengali

Animal: Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus)

Bird: White-breastes Kingfisher (Halycon smyrnesis)

Trees: Devil Tree (Alstonia scholaris)

Flowers: Night-flowering Jasmine (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis)

Union Territories

1.Jammu and Kashmir

Capital: Srinagar

Governor: Manoj Sinha (Lieutenant Governor)

Chief Languages: Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Ladakhi, Punjabi, Dadri

Animal: Kashmir Stag (Cervus elephus hanglu)

Bird: Black-necked Crane (Grus Nigricollis)

Trees: Chinar Tree (Platanus oreintalis)

Flowers: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

2. Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Governor: Devendra Kumar Joshi

Capital: Port Blair

Chief Languages: Local Dialects, Nicobarese, Bengali, Hindi, Nicobarese, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam

Animal: Dugong or Sea Cow)

Bird: Andaman Wood Pigeon (Columba Palumboides)

Trees: Andaman Padauk

3. Chandigarh

Governor: V. P. Singh Badnore

Capital: Chandigarh

Chief Languages: Hindi, Punjabi, English

Animal: Indian Grey Mongose

Bird: Indian Grey Hornbil

Trees: Mango Tree

Flowers: Dhak Flower

4. Delhi (NCT)

Governor: Anil Baijal

Capital: New Delhi

Chief Languages: Hindi, English, Urdu and Punjabi

Animal: Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)

Bird: House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus)

5. Lakshadweep

Governor: Praful Patel

Capital: Kavaratti

Chief Languages: Pahari, Hindi, Punjabi, Kinnauri

Animal: Butterfly Fish (Chaetodon decussatus)

Bird: Noddy Tern

Trees: Bread Fruit (Artocarpus incisa)

6. Puducherry

Governor: Dr. Tamilisai Soundararajan

Capital: Pondicherry

Chief Languages: Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English and French

Animal: Squirrel (Funambulus palmarum)

Bird: Asian Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus)

Trees: Bael Fruit Tree (Aegle marmelos)

Flowers: Cannonball Tree’s Flower

7. Daman & Diu (DD)

Capital: Daman

Chief Languages: Gujarati, Hindi

8. Dadar & Nagar Haveli (DN)

Governor: Praful Patel

Capital: Daman

Chief Languages: Bhili, Gujarati, Bhilodi, Marathi and Hindi

Also Check: The Federal Structure of India | Timeline of World History

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Arpita Choudhary
Arpita Choudhary
Passionate for writing, enjoy writing on variety of topics and I take pleasure in immersing myself in learning about new and exciting domains.

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